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Learn JSON Schema Language in 5 Minutes

Everything worth knowing about JSON Schema Language

JSON Schema Language (aka “JSL”) is a way to describe shape of JSON data. This document will explain in five minutes all of the major features in JSL. By the end of it, you’ll be able to read any JSL schema, and understand exactly what it’s doing.

An empty schema is the simplest kind of schema. It looks like this:


Empty schemas are like any in TypeScript or Object in Java. They accept anything.

A type schema lets you specify what kind of primitive data you require. It looks like this:

{ "type": "string" }

That schema says “the data must be a string”. The values you can put for type are:

  • boolean is like TypeScript’s or Java’s boolean.
  • string is like TypeScript’s string or Java’s String.
  • timestamp says the data has to be an RFC3339 timestamp. That’s the standard timestamp format for the internet.
  • number, float32, and float64 all work like TypeScript’s number. They accept any JSON number, whether or not they’re floating-point.
  • Then there are a bunch of integer types: int8, uint8, int16, uint16, int32, uint32. They check that the data is an integer, and that it falls within a particular range of values. For example, uint8 only accepts values between 0 and 255.

If some of your data is a string, but there are only a handful of valid values for that string, then you can use an enum schema to handle this case. It looks like this:

{ "enum": ["GOOD", "BAD", "UGLY" ]}

That’s equivalent to this TypeScript:

type MyEnum = "GOOD" | "BAD" | "UGLY";

or Java:

enum MyEnum {

So far, we’ve only been able to describe primitive data. To describe arrays, you can use an elements schema. It looks like this:

{ "elements": { "type": "string" }}

That schema says “the data has to be an array of strings”. You can stick any JSL schema inside elements.

There are three major ways people use JSON objects. JSL handles of them differently:

When a JSON object is most like a struct, where you know the key names in advance, you can use a properties schema. They look like this:

  "properties": {
    "name": { "type": "string" },
    "age": { "type": "number" }
  "optionalProperties": {
    "favoriteNumber": { "type": "number" }

That schema says “the data has to be an object with name (a string) and age (a number). favoriteNumber is optional, but if it’s present it has to be a number”. It’s equivalent to this TypeScript:

interface MyData {
  name: string
  age: number
  favoriteNumber?: number

In Java, it’s like:

public class MyData {
  private String name;

  private double age;

  private Double favoriteNumber;

When a data is most like a dictionary, where you don’t know the key names, but you do know what the type of all the values are, you can use a values schema. They look like this:

{ "values": { "type": "boolean" }}

That schema says “the data has to be an object where all the values are booleans”. It’s equivalent to Map<String, Boolean> in Java.

When data is most like a discriminated union, also known as a tagged union, where you first have to read one of properties, and then based on its value you know what kind of data you’re dealing with, then you can use a discriminator schema. They look like this:

  "discriminator": {
    "tag": "eventType",
    "mapping": {
      "User Deleted": {
        "properties": {
          "userId": { "type": "string" }
      "User Changed Email": {
        "properties": {
          "userId": { "type": "string" },
          "email": { "type": "string" }

That schema is saying “the data has to be an object with an eventType property. If the eventType is User Deleted, then the data has to have a userId (a string). If the eventType is User Changed Email, then it has to have a userId (a string) and email (a string). If the eventType is anything else, then the data is invalid”.

In TypeScript, this is equivalent to:

type MyData = UserDeleted | UserChangedEmail;

interface UserDeleted {
  eventType: "User Deleted"
  userId: string

interface UserChangedEmail {
  eventType: "User Changed Email"
  userId: string
  email: string

That’s the entire syntax of JSL. You might now want to see example schemas or check out some real-world use-cases.